Sadržaj Zbornika 4/5 / 2008/2009 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti. Online)
Rad obuhvata sistematizaciju glinenih lula, otkrivenih prilikom zaštitnih arheoloških istraživanja na Petrovaradinskoj tvrđavi, višeslojnom lokalitetu sa moćnim stratumom iz osmanskog i austrougarskog razdoblja. Lule su razvrstane u tri osnovne grupe: turske lule, podeljene na ukrašene, neukrašene i lule sa rozetom; tursko-mađarske lule, mešana grupa sa elementima zapadnih i turskih lula; lule sa pečatima srednjoevropskih radionica (M. HŐNIG.WW./SCHMNITZ, A. RESS, F. BRUNNER...). Grupa turskih i tursko-mađarskih lula, na osnovu analogija, datovana je u širi period od XVII do XIX veka, a nešto mlađa grupa lula sa pečatima srednjoevropskih radionica u kraj XVIII i XIX vek.
Petrovaradinska tvrđava, glinene lule, recipijent, čibuk, kamiš, kalup, pečat
Protective excavations at Petrovaradin Fortress in the period 2002 - 2004 had unearthed 369 mainly fragmented clay pipes. They were systematized on the basis of typology established by Béla Kovács and Gábor Tomka, Hungarian archaeologists who had interpreted material from different fortresses in the Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy which once encompassed the Petrovaradin Fortress as well. Pipes are classified into three groups: Turkish, mixed Turkish- Hungarian and pipes bearing stamps of Central Europe workshops. The oldest is the group of Turkish pipes and it corresponds with the long Turkish rule over Petrovaradin Fortress (1526-1691). Turkish pipes are divided into three groups: decorated, made in fine clay moulds, well fired with plenty of forms and richly decorated (relief and impressing by stamps, tubes and rollers); undecorated, of lower quality and due to cheap production costs massively produced, they were used by poorer social layers; pipes with rosettes, moulded, most often white glazed, with rosette decoration on both sides of the receptacle. Turkish pipes which stayed in use at Petrovaradin Fortress even after the departure of the Turkish troops (based on analogies they are dated within a longer period between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries) testify to their popularity among soldiers serving in the Austro-Hungarian army.
Mixed group of Turkish-Hungarian pipe forms developed by the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth centuries in the bordering zones of Hungary, where their production started emulating Western, “Dutch” and Eastern “Turkish” (less refined shapes and coarse manufacturing) forms in which process the Eastern influence was stronger.
The youngest group of pipes with stamps of the Central European workshops was manufactured by the end of the eighteenth and in the nineteenth centuries. The best known workshops come from Debrecen and Banská Štiavnica and from the workshops from this circle (Körmend, Vasvár and Pápa). Most frequent finds of pipes at Petrovaradin Fortress are those with KŐNIG workshop stamps. They are of high quality, having a characteristic form with high receptacle, shell-like or semi-circular lower part and short stem taking acute angle to the bowl. Most frequent inscriptions are M.HŐNIG. WW./SCHMNITZ,.M.HŐNIGSOHN/ SCHEMNITZ, M. HŐNIG/SCHEMNITZ. Many of the pipes bear stamps of FRANZ/BRUNNER and A. RESS workshops.
Most of the pipes found at the Petrovaradin Fortress are imports brought in by soldiers since they were those who first introduced pipe smoking habits into these parts but also workers and craftsmen from other parts of the region who were hired to build this monumental fortress. Pipes were also imported through trading using the Danube routes mostly.
Sedefli nanule, drvene, visoke papuče, bogatog ukrasa, sa dve potpetice, karakteristične su za čitavo područje Otomanskog carstva. Smatraju se delom ženskog građanskog kostima XIX veka u sredinama koje su prihvatile orijentalni način života. Svojom visinom i bogatstvom ukrasa odražavale su društveni status vlasnice. Nošenje nanula se prvenstveno vezivalo za običaj odlaska u hamam (tursko kupatilo), gde su ih nosile žene, kao i muškarci i deca. Sasvim je izvesno da su nanule imale ulogu i u još nekim običajima izvan kupatila. Jednostavniji primerci visokih nanula, znatno nižih i često bez ili sa skromnim ukrasom, bili su deo svakodnevnog kostima siromašnih slojeva i nošeni su u kući i oko nje, u dvorištu kao i na ulici. Sačuvani primerci visokih nanula nisu stariji od XIX veka, ali se po likovnim izvorima upotreba nanula može pratiti unazad do XVI veka.
nanule, obuća, građanski ženski kostim, XIX vek, orijentalna gradska kultura, Balkan, Bliski istok, Otomansko carstvo
Introductory description of high toe mules (nanule) defines them as specific type of footwear made of wood and often richly decorated. The name for this kind of footwear – sedefli (sedef – mother of pearl) toe mules is derived from its costly decoration, most often made of mother of pearl. Then follows a description of Oriental life and dressing styles including particularities related to woman's urban costume during the nineteenth century Serbia.
In the chapter on Toe Mules, Hammam and Customs, the customs and rituals characteristic for going to a hammam (Turkish bath) are analysed including both the pictorial sources provided by European artists with illustrations of Turkish baths and written topical sources from national literature. Growth of the Ottoman Empire implied spreading of Oriental ways of life whereby toe mules were part of footwear not only in Turkey but also in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Tunisia. As for the Balkans, this type of footwear was habitual in Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo and Metohija and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pictorial sources (the oldest visual representation found is dated into the beginning of the sixteenth century) served as basis for chronology of toe mules wearing. It is generally understood that toe mules were primarily part of woman's costume and its use was linked with visits to a Turkish bath. However, visual and written sources as well as professional literature prove that toe mules were widely worn both in homes and beyond, in yards, on streets. They were likewise worn by men and children.
Catalogue entries related to toe mules kept in the Textile and Costume Department of the Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade provide information on materials used, decorative techniques and ornaments applied on lavishly decorated samples. Types of mules differ but they are all of similar size though their shape and decoration may differ.
Luxurious specimens of toe mules must have been produced by good craftsmen. Available literature helped writing the part of our paper dealing with distribution of toe mules and saddler workshops which are linked with toe mules manufacture. The concluding part of the paper treats the importance of wooden footwear in general, provides a reduced survey of wooden footwear distribution, in particular shoes with platforms produced and worn not only within the Balkans but also throughout Europe, Asia, Far East and Africa.
Odsek za metal i nakit Muzeja primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu predstavlja osamnaest predmeta iz legata Irine Simić koji se čuvaju u njegovim kolekcijama. Reč je o nakitu nastalom u XIX i XX veku, najvećim delom na tlu Evrope. U kolekciji dominiraju broševi, kako brojem tako i raznovrsnošću tipova. Osnovni motiv ovog teksta sadržan je u pokušaju da se poređenjem i stilskom analizom predmeti preciznije odrede u kontekstu vremena u kom su nastajali, uz razumevanje onovremenih tendencija u izradi nakita.
nakit, zlato, XIX vek, kolekcija, legat, Irina Simić.
The Metalwork and Jewellery Department of the Museum of Applied Art houses a collection of jewellery from the bequest of Irina Simić. The collection consists of eighteen pieces of jewellery manufactured primarily in Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Irina and Ljubomir Simić originate from urban Russian respectively Serbian families at the turn of the nineteenth century. Objects preserved are partly their family heirloom and partly purchases made during the life of Mrs. Simić. Most numerous are breast and neck worn pieces (brooches, pendants, medallions, necklaces) and bracelets. Material used is primarily gold and silver decorated in many ways – engraved, gilded, polished, embellished with diamonds and precious stones, multicoloured enamel or precious materials (mother of pearl, corals, shells). All the objects, particularly those produced in the nineteenth century, are typical of their time both in the sense of art and craft. However, it is for their look, elegance and craftsmanship that we would single out a lady's watch shaped as pendant (Cat. No. 7) embellished with dark blue guilloché enamel and with an image of a genre scene on its backside; further, a brooch from the second half of the nineteenth century (Cat. No. 2) deserves attention for its most decorative frame which is shaped as a tiny floral stripe of circular cross-section additionally engraved and ornate with black enamel; also a very fine cameo from the 1870s (Cat. No. 5) representing a typified profile of a young woman with carefully worked out details. Among the objects from the twentieth century some of the pieces show traits of traditional, folk art: for example, a silver necklace from Mexico (Cat. No. 16) and hinged bracelets (Cat. No, 14, 15) but there are also works of renowned Belgrade jewelers (Cat. No 10, 11) from the between-the-two-world-wars period.
Beata Biedronska-Slota (Beata Biedrońska-Słota)
Krakow at the end of the 19th century provided the ideal condition for the development of independent spiritual and artistic views and behavior. With such strong foundations, the atmosphere of the city had to influence all areas of life, including fashion. The artists, especially under the influence of the folk culture, designed many of the creation.
At the beginning of the last century, Krakow artists developed a new conception for designing kilims.
Textile, clothing, Krakow, National Museum, naked soul, C. K. Norwid, S. Witkiewicz, Zakopane, secession, H. Modrzejewska
Krajem XIX veka Krakov pruža idealne uslove za razvoj nezavisnih duhovnih i umetničkih pogleda i stavova. Gradska atmosfera, uz ovakve oslonce, uticala je na sve oblasti života uključujući i modu. Mnoge kreacije su potekle od umetnika, posebno pod uticajem narodnog stvaralaštva.
Na početku prošlog veka krakovski umetnici su razvili novu koncepciju dizajniranja ćilima.
U članku je predstavljena ferotipija iz zbirke Zavičajnog muzeja u Jagodini. Posebna pažnja je posvećena tehnologiji izrade, osobenostima i istorijskom razvoju ferotipije s obzirom na to da u literaturi na srpskom jeziku ova tema nije naročito zastupljena. Istaknute su razlike u odnosu na druge rane fotografske tehnike i ukazano je na značaj daljeg istraživanja kako bi se dobila preciznija slika o rasprostranjenosti ferotipije na tlu Srbije.
fotografija, dagerotipija, kolodijum, ferotipija (melanotipija, tintipija), portret
The Collection of Photographs at the Museum in Jagodina houses one well-preserved ferrotype picturing two unidentified persons. The process used was that of wet collodion coated on iron sheets. Ferrotype was an early photographing technique devised as result of the attempt to create a simpler and cheaper replacement of the daguerreotype. It was introduced by Adolph Martin and patented in 1856 by Hamilton Smith, an American scientist, photographer and astronomer who taught chemistry and physics in Ohio. Two American companies rivaled in the production and the company run by Peter Neff called them melainotypes while that of Victor Moreau Griswold named them ferrotypes. Tintype was the third term, which though of later date, was in use in literature. The entire process was relatively simple and would take only few minutes to accomplish. The collodion emulsion mixed with potassium iodide would be coated on thin iron sheets varnished black. The treated plate was then sensitized by soaking it in solution of silver nitrate. While the collodion was still moist, the plate was exposed. The exposition lasted for short time only. After that the photograph was developed, fixed, rinsed and coated by transparent protective varnish. First ferrotypes used to be inserted in decorative boxes while later various types of frames were made and finally paper and cardboard envelopes usually in cartes-de-visite format prevailed. Occasionally, no encasement was used. From the United States they expanded to England, Australia and New Zealand. They used to be made by traveling photographers who worked at fairs, bazaars, in tourist resorts or simply in the streets. This was the reason for the quality of photograph to entirely rely upon the photographer's skills who often were craftsmen in pursuit of fast and easy earning. The only object of photography was portraiture, and the invention of camera with several lenses allowed for small dimensions ferrotypes to be made (as small as post stamps) or even smaller which would then be inserted into brooches, tie-pins, cuffs and other jewellers. In comparison to other early photographing techniques, ferrotypes had much longer life extending even to the World War II. The importance of ferrotype lies in the fact that it made photographs available to broadest social layers. They are rarely found in museums in Serbia; however, they are more often kept in private collections.
Magdalena Čubinska (Magdalena Czubinska)
The National Museum in Krakow has a biggest collection of Polish Art Nouveau poster. The artistic poster phenomena began in Poland very early, in 1894. The greatest Polish artists, such as: Stanislaw Wyspianski, Wojciech Weiss, Teodor Axentowicz and many others designed the numerous posters connected with the artistic life of the city . The poster exhibitions started since 1898. Untill the end of the First World War Krakow and Lvov were the main centers of the Polish art of printing and poster. The author presents the artistic position of Krakow, its greatest artists, the tendencies and influences that were popular in that time.
Art Nouveau, Poster, Krakow, Fin de siècle, Print, Lithography
Krakovski gradonačelnici sprovodili su efikasne programe ubrzane modernizacije grada u drugoj polovini XIX veka. Austrijske okupacione vlasti su 1866. g. obnovile gradsku samoupravu i održani su izbori za Gradsko veće. Brojne ekonomske, komunalne i kulturne inicijative pretvorile su Krakov, do tada potpuno provincijski grad, u značajan i moderan investicioni centar sa razvijenim akademskim i umetničkim krugovima. Jagelonski univerzitet, Državna industrijska škola i Akademija nauka i umetnosti deluju bez prekida. Od 1873. g. Škola lepih umetnosti deluje kao nezavisna institucija pod upravom slikara Jana Matejka, a kasnije Julijana Falata, da bi 1900. g. dobila status Akademije lepih umetnosti. Godine 1910. Krakov postaje peti grad po značaju u Austrijskom carstvu, ispred njega su samo Beč, Trst, Prag i Lavov. U Krakovu je 1914. godine izlazilo sto devet redovnih publikacija, uključujući sedam dnevnih listova, pet satiričnih magazina i šest književnih i umetničkih časopisa. Krakov se mogao pohvaliti sa trideset osam obrazovnih i naučnih društava i sa dvadeset i jednim umetničkim udruženjem. Najznačajniji su «Štuka» (Sztuka) Udruženje poljskih umetnika, osnovano 1897. g., Udruženje poljskih primenjenih umetnika i Društvo lepih umetnosti koje deluje od 1854. godine. Udruženje poljskih primenjenih umetnika objavljuje periodični časopis (Materialy PSS). Najuticajniji umetnički časopis bio je nedeljnik (Zucije) osnovan 1897.
Umetnost plakata u Poljskoj započinje 1898. g. kada je Jan Vdoviševski (Jan Wdowiszewski), vatreni zastupnik ovog oblika umetnosti, organizovao Prvu međunarodnu izložbu plakata u krakovskom Narodnom muzeju.
Najbolji poljski umetnički plakat napravio je Stanislav Vispjanjski (Stanislaw Wuspiański) 1899. g za Enterijer Morisa Meterlinka (Maurice Materlinck). Koristio je pastelno slikarstvo, nacrte za vitraže, zidno slikarstvo, a bavio se i opremom enterijera. Reformisao je umetničko oblikovanje knjige: stvarao je nove tipove slova, tipografska rešenja, kreirao korice i vinjete. Posebno mesto u njegovom umetničkom delu imaju književnost i pozorište. Pisao je poeziju, ali je ostao zapamćen po pozorišnim komadima koji i danas spadaju u klasični repertoar poljskog teatra. Sam je režirao svoje drame, pravio nacrte za kostime, scenografiju i koreografiju.
Kad je o plakatima reč, javljaju se dve tendencije, Jedna je rezultat uticaja ekspresionizma. Tipična je za Vojćeha Vajsa (Wojcieh Weiss), vodećeg poljskog slikara koji je pravio plakate za Udruženje «Štuka». Drugi primer je Karol Frič (Karol Frucz) i njegovi plakati (na primer, plakat za Melpomenin portfolio kojim su oglašavane serije karikatura poljskih dramskih umetnika).
Autorica u članku daje prikaz životnog puta i rada Zlate Šufllay, prve hrvatske dizajnerice autorskih nacrta za čipke. U tekstu je opisan njen rad na mjestu učiteljice i voditeljice čipkarskih tečaja u Lepoglavi i u Varaždinskim Toplicama, potom rad na mjestu kustosice zbirke tekstila u Muzeju za umjetnost i obrt, i na kraju njeno djelovanje po odlasku u mirovinu.
primijenjena umjetnost, tekstil, čipkarstvo, čipka na batiće, Lepoglava, Varaždinske Toplice, Muzej za umjetnost i obrt, Zagreb, dizajn
There are only few titles in Croatian art history which treat applied art women artists – in particular when textile applied art is concerned. Lace is by definition a textile product linked to female handcrafting. Significant female creators who were fashioning textile, utility items, clothes and accessories also engaged in making designs for laces and/or in making laces. Zlata Sufflay was one of the first recognized creators of lace designs who also made laces. She was a woman of many gifts: teacher, lace designs creator – artist, lace maker, historian and theoretician of lace making, museologist and writer.
Zlata Sufflay was born in the village of Jesenje in Hrvatsko Zagorje region in 1873. She got her elementary education in the monastery of Ursuline nuns in Varaždin and in 1893 she graduated from the Teacher-training school led by Sisters of Mercy in Zagreb.
She spent one year teaching in villages of Zagorje region, and then was reassigned to Lepoglava where she worked as teacher and head of lace making course from 1894 till 1897. Her lacemaking course followed given programmatic foundations and she was gradually introducing her own lace designs, which she called – laces by Zlata Sufflay.
After Lepoglava she was reassigned to Varaždinske Toplice where in the period from 1897 till 1913 she worked as teacher and head of the Professional lace making course. Since Varaždinske Toplice was a tourist resort, she organised making and selling of laces as a tourist souvenir. She often engaged in field researches focused on collecting information on traditional textile handcraft. However, due to her feeble health condition she moved to Zagreb, to the Museum of Arts and Crafts. After she left Varaždinske Toplice the lace-making course in that place came to an end.
In November 1913 she began to work as curator of the textile collection in the Museum of Arts and Crafts. During her service in the Museum she both created designs for lace patterns and made laces after them. She then divided the lace patterns into nine maps. These works were results of her endeavours to establish common Croatian lace as creative assessment based on researches and interpretation of motifs and ornaments taken from the traditional textile handcraft. Besides Croatian laces, she used her own designs in making other South Slav and Balkan origin laces: Serbian, Macedonian and Albanian. Inspiration for these laces she found in historical researches of her brother Milan Sufflay and in folk songs, myths and legends. She worked in the Museum of Arts and Crafts until she retired in 1926.
During her service in the Museum she researched the Lepoglava lace making tradition and published series of articles on the subject. Her most significant publication is The Croatian Traditional Lace in Home and on the Altar (Hrvatska narodna čipka na domu i na oltaru) self-published in Vienna in 1918. The book offers a historical survey of development of Croatian lace as well as of Lepoglava lace making and advocates original Croatian lace making as an item which should find its place in every Croatian home and on every altar.
Significant part of her activities was dedicated to participations at many exhibitions in the country and abroad. The most important one was the Exposition Internationale des Art Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 where she was awarded silver medal for her lace A Fan.
During her retirement time she was most active in writing and publicising which allows for her opus to be divided into papers dealing with lace-making and those in the domain of religious and literary fiction titles, which she published under different pseudonyms. She was also engaged in establishing the Croatian Lace-Making School in Varaždinske Toplice. She almost succeeded in realization of her project but the World War II spoiled her plans.
Ivan R. Marković
Analiza arhitekture porodične kuće arhitekte Bogdana Nestorovića – jedne od najznačajnijih graditeljskih ostvarenja iz oblasti stambenog graditeljstva međuratnog Beograda – predstavlja pokušaj pravilne atribucije, ali i adekvatnog vrednovanja arhitekture kuća beogradskih neimara. U radu je naglašen značaj individualističke konotacije autora, usaglašene sa vladajućim konstruktivnim, funkcionalnim i estetskim normama vladajuće epohe. Kuća Bogdana Nestorovića u tom pogledu nameće se istovremeno i kao jedan od najadekvatnijih modela u procesu revalorizacije specifičnog tipa arhitekture kuća beogradskih graditelja.
Bogdan Nestorović, Beograd, porodična kuća, arhitektura
Belgrade architecture between the two World Wars was marked by building development of family houses and villas besides representative public objects. Architecture of family houses as designed by Belgrade architects represents specific typological models which excel among common more-thanone family housing. Within the frame of the epoch and in accordance with their individual inhibitions, the architects designed their own houses according to their individual needs and manifestly insisted on recognizable marks they left on the type and intensity of the visual approach to the exterior mainly. One of the outstanding examples of this concept is the interesting architectural design of the family villa of the architect Bogdan Nestorović located on 69, Kneza Miloša Street. Save for the recognizable “Belgrade flats” type, the construction of the Nestorović home is not inferior to the construction framework of most of the houses built in Belgrade at the period. However it introduces no innovative characteristics into the original concept of a house. On the other hand, when the intensity of the aesthetic connotations of the localized facade elements in the exterior is concerned, the Nestorović house embodies the recognizable personal affinity of the architect as the author and owner of the space. Refined by facing brickwork as reminescence of their domestic medievistic origin the cubic setting of the Nestorović villa construction represents undoubtedly a contribution to its interesting visual effect but also to the visual perceptions of the author or commissioner. Using models from the authenthic vernacular architecture architect Nestorović proved himself once again a pronounced scholar having original plan for designig his own home. By exogamy of different forms of decoration consisting of minutely shaped motfis, placing details and elements within modern cubic form he accomplished harmony of proportions and combinations of mass and surface which are a recognizable mark of the Belgrade opus of the arhchitect. In his brilliant approach to designing his own space, Nestorović was led by his personal romantic views without noticeable reference to his previous building achievements. Although Nestorović had created more than ten private houses commissioned by different owners, he managed the original and unharmonized concepts for these objects mainly in order to satisfy diverse requests of the commissioners but also in the attempt to avoid monotony and unfavourable effects of serial production. When designing his own house Nestorović proved equally innovative and followed his personal and evident fascination with architectural stone plastic of the eastern Adriatic. Having been built as one of the last housing objects in Kneza Miloša Street in the eve of the World War II, villa Nestorović is in the same time an important model of inverted approach to the issue of permanent relation between the artist and his work.
Tri plakata za filmove Federika Felinija, koji se čuvaju u zbirci Odseka za savremenu primenjenu umetnost Muzeja primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu, predstavljaju komunikacije umetničkih ideja izraženih u filmovima čuvenog italijanskog reditelja. Na svim plakatima primarna je predstava odnosa između glavnih junaka pojedinog filma – nasilničkog muškog i tragi-čnog ženskog lika. Ovakvom prezentacijom likova, posmatrač se neposredno uvodi u osnovne tematske okvire Felinijevih filmova.
film, plakat, Federiko Felini, Đulijeta Mazina, autobiografija, sadomazohizam, trauma, proto pop-art figuracija
Within its collection of posters and graphic design works, in the fund of feature films posters the Contemporary Applied Art Department of the Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade houses three posters designed for feature films of Federico Fellini (1920-1993): La Strada (1954), Inv. No. 6327; Le Notti di Cabiria (1957), Inv. No. 3715; and 8 ½ (1963), Inv. No. 5781. Fellini received Best Foreign Film Academy Awards (Oscar) for work on these films as well as for his Amarcord (1973).
Films Le Notti di Cabiria, La Strada and 8 ½ represent visual metaphors for the inability of the main woman characters to be free and this is achieved either by Fellini's neo - realistic method as in La Strada, surrealistic one as in 8 ½, or even as fusion of these two methods as in Le Notti di Cabiria. The pose Cabiria's body takes on the poster for Le Notti di Cabiria implies her subordinance to Oscar while neurotic expression on his face suggests the tragic end of the film. The poster as does the film itself combines two fundamental psychological motifs – that of Eros and of Thanatos. La Strada is a story of Zampanò and Gelsomina, of a street entertainer and his assistant. It is exactly that inability to feel free that forces Gelsomina not to leave Zampanò in spite of his physical and sexual harassment. According to Bataille “eroticism opens path to death” at least when the eroticism of body as “violence against the very being of the partner” is concerned. By suppressing the Eros, i.e. by denying the normal sexual and romantic liaison with Gelsomina, Zampanò is subdued by the negative psychological impulse which finally wins over. The relation master-servant is established on all the three posters in the first place by positioning of the main characters.
Poster for the film 8 ½ indicates that the film embodies certain characteristics of Fellini's handwriting, unusual for the remaining film production of the period. Surrealistic combination of main characters, Guido and Claudia, suggests a sexual and perverse relation between Eros and Thanatos which ends in dominance of the negative psychological impulse. The scene of Guido swinging a whip emphasizes the sadistic relation existing between the main character and women in his life. In the first part of the film Claudia's character is just a phantasm of Guido – she appears only twice and without entering a dialogue with him; her role develops into dramatic one only at the end of the film. On the other hand, the melancholic body position and face expression of Claudia indicate the vulnerability of female characters in the film 8 ½. Having brought Guido and Claudia into a unique sado-masochistic relation the designer of the poster successfully defined relation between the main characters of the film. Similarly to the Le Notti di Cabiria and La Strada poster for 8 ½ joins the two actors although in the film itself there is no single frame in which they would take these positions, wear such costumes, not even the set is the same as the one existing in the film. The author of the poster evidently wished to establish dramatic relation between the two characters and by this to introduce the plot scheme with a sado-masochistic or tragic and dramatic imbroglio.
Taken as a whole these posters represent means of communication between the director, media and the public using two graphical dimensions to exemplify director's idea. The film posters for La Strada, Le Notti di Cabiria and 8 ½ bring closer the current understanding of male-female relations in our society in the same way as the mentioned films illustrate models of these relations prevailing in the period. Rating figures of Fellini's films were very high and part of the success was certainly due to the creators of posters which graphically translated onto paper the ideas and messages of his films.
Franko Bertoni (Franco Bertoni)
Fin dagli esordi, nel 1950, la figura di Ambrogio Pozzi ha rappresentato, con linearità e progressiva continuità progettuale, una delle massime espressioni della via italiana al design. Pozzi è stato, per il secondo dopoguerra italiano, l'autorevole alfiere di una progettazione semplice, lineare, raffinata ed essenziale che è riuscita ad imporsi all'attenzione internazionale sia in termini di collaborazioni con le più prestigiose manifatture che in termini di mercato. Il suo apporto non si è limitato alla ceramica ma ha indagato anche il cristallo, il vetro, l'acciaio, la plastica, il legno, l'argento e il tessuto.
Od prvog pojavljivanja 1950. godine, Ambrođo Poci (Ambrogio Pozzi) je, linerano i u progresivnom kontinuitetu niza projekata, bio jedan od značajnih predstavnika italijanskog stila u dizajnu. On je u periodu posle Drugog svetskog rata bio autoritativni nosilac jednostavnog linearnog stila, suštinski razrađenog i rafiniranog, koji je privukao pažnju međunarodne javnosti i uspeo da se nametne kroz saradnju sa najpoznatijim međunarodnim dizajnerima, a takođe je bio i uspešan na tržištu. NJegov rad ne obuhvata samo dela od keramike, već i radove u kristalu, staklu, čeliku, plastici, drvetu, srebru i tekstilu.
good-design, estetica industriale, progetta-zione etica, oggetto d'uso quotidiano, forme eleganti, funzio-nalismo, rifiuto della decorazione, psicologia della gestalt, impilabilità, linea semplice e chiara / robni dizajn (good-design), industrijska estetika, etičko projektovanje, predmeti za svakodnevnu upotrebu, elegantne forme, funkcionalizam, izbegavanje dekorativnih elemenata, psihologija oblika, izbegavnje vertikalne noseće strukture, jasna i jedno-stavna linija
The design of Ambrogio Pozzi begun in ceramic (clay, majolica and porcelain) and ceramic remained his constant and privileged interest in his contribution to what was defined as “a new domestic landscape”. Parallel to university studies of chemistry, Pozzi has attended the Institute of Arts in Ceramic in Faenza (l'Istituto d'Arte per la Ceramica di Faenza). In 1950, he begins collaboration with his paternal company: the Franco Pozzi Ceramics from Gallarate.
The clear consciousness of technical and technological problems, faced in paternal manufacture, fused with the influence of local artisan tradition and was consequently reflected in his work: in 1953 the Sad Vases (Vasi squalo) – a tribute to organicism of the Scandinavian mark as in table set Arianna made in 1959 and awarded Palladio Prize in Vicenza; from 1960 dates Rosanna series; from the early Sixties date Britoil Europozzi and the Shopping series.
The table set Frida from 1963, the earthenware from 1964, the TR 13 series ( Palladio Award, Vicenza 1964) and especially the Compact set from 1968 (short listed for Golden Compass) indicate perfecting of Pozzi's design methods and visions which do not lean on vertical support and are based on compound compatibility and multi functionality as their minimal common denominator.
Dues to the world of Nordic and Scandinavian design, obvious in his work after his sojourn in Sweden, Denmark, France and Germany were done with and the most prestigious European porcelain producer – Rosenthal summoned him for collaboration. In 1968, he has created set Duo for the Rosenthal, which remained in production until the end of 1997. Duo's exemplary form and functionality was awarded at International Competition of Ceramics in Faenza. Same year Pozzi was invited to Hallmark Gallery in New York to the “Design Italian Style” exhibition.
Another important Pozzi's projects dates from early Seventies: the china sets for Alitalia's cabin service. Together with Joe Colombo, Pozzi designed entire food ware for both economy and first class of the Italian flag carrier. Once again, Pozzi responds to precise functional and representative requirements with a clear, refined and intelligent projection void of excessive formalism.
Though the successes of Duo, Cono and Alitalia were not to be repeated, Pozzi continued his coherent research with sets Primaluna, Tall short (Alto basso) from 1973, the Wood (I Legni) from 1979, House (Casa) from 1989. The clocks Temporotondo designed for Rosenthal in 1991 and the objects performed in glass, metacrylate, crystal, Pyrex and silver during Eighties and Nineties demonstrate, however, a greater compromise with the emerging taste tendencies.
Tekst Sobe porcelana XVIII veka u svetlu nove muzeologije predstavlja dve muzejske postavke i njihove različite pristupe izlaganju delova muzejskih zbirki. Nastale 1993. godine u Muzeju primenjene umetnosti u Beču i 2007. godine u Umetničkom muzeju u Sijetlu, obe postavke "govore" jezikom nove muzeologije. NJihove razlike, međutim, ukazuju na razvoj svojstven epistemo-loškoj promeni koja je u toku. Izdvajanjem i kratkom analizom ovih primera jasno se uočava promena pri-stupa muzejskoj postavci koja sve više postaje potpuni umetnički doživljaj. Osnovna po(r)uka o sveobuhvatnom procesu muzealizacije i njegovom doprinosu očuvanju i oživljavanju prošlosti tako čini i okosnicu ovog prikaza.
Muzeologija, muzej, primenjena umetnost, stalna postavka, porcelan, XVIII vek
The ongoing development of museum activities in the last two decades produced astonishing breakthroughs as to the approach to cultural heritage. This inexorable transformation process of museum displays is best witnessed by two porcelain rooms, one in the Museum of Applied Art in Vienna and the other in the Art Museum in Seattle. The first mentioned was established at the beginning of 1990s and it marked the passage to the interior of heritage (white cube of Donald Judd as exterior in which the invisible becomes visible by means of the paradox of minimalism and of the end of the century). The second example comes from the end of the first decade of the 21st century (Porcelain Room in the Art Museum in Seattle as interior virtual space) and it demonstrates hyper-textuality of cybernetic museum in search of cultural identity. If the century we are living in represents the world as an information web then the requirements for changes in museum as well as for its offers would be quite obvious if it is to be transformed into a generative field of analog memory – that is to continually make the already inevitable digital transformation possible by remembering the past through comprehensive network of the process of musealisation.
Na retrospektivnoj izložbi Dušana Jankovića (1894–1950), održanoj u Muzeju primenjene umetnosti u Beogradu 1987. godine, bila su izložena i izabrana dela iz oblasti keramike i porcelana. Autor izložbe, prof. dr Vladimir Rozić, ih je datovao, utvrdio karakteristike i ukazao na njihov značaj u kontekstu celokupnog umetnikovog opusa. Namera ovog teksta je da detaljnije razmotri ovu Jankovićevu isključivo parisku aktivnost i da predstavi te predmete i dokumentaciju koji se čuvaju u Muzeju primenjene umetnosti.
Dušan Janković, keramika, porcelan, Nacionalna manufaktura porcelana u Sevru, Međunarodna izložba moderne primenjene i industrijske umetnosti u Parizu 1925, ornament, ar deko
Dušan Janković (1894-1950) studied painting at the École National des Arts Décoratifs while he lived in Paris (1916- 1935) at the same time when Art Deco was thriving. This style was mostly focused on ornaments which makes understandable why Janković was so concentrated on its development. As it was customary at that time he would apply variants of an ornament to different media – ceramics, porcelain, wall decoration, carpets, clothes, posters etc. Janković created a particular set of motifs inspired by Serbian and Macedonian folk art already as senior student in 1920 and 1921. This approach made him belong to that huge, international group of Art Deco creators whose aim was to stylize folk art motifs and transform them into modern and applicable designs for fashionably modeled objects. By 1921 the work of Janković was assessed as progressive achievement in Yugoslav decorative art and a step toward “a general and world art”. It was the way Janković linked the local aspect with the universal and the traditional one with the contemporary that made his work recognizable and to the liking of his Paris clients.
Dušan Janković made his first artistic steps in 1917 when he went to Paris. There he cooperated with Atelier Serbe de Paris where decorative and functional faience, porcelain and ceramics objects were manufactured or just decorated. During the 1920s he was most active in creating porcelain and ceramic objects among other works. Besides art items which he personally designed, manufactured and decorated, he made designs for the Parisian porcelain factory Bloch et Fils in 1923 (it has not been possible to document cooperation with this factory) and from 1924 until 1932/1933 his designs were used in decorating various objects in Manufacture nationale de Sévres. The work of Dušan Janković was highly appreciated by the Manufacture nationale so much so that the long-time manager Georges Lechevallier-Chevignard published in the album representing modern production of Sévres three objects decorated after designs of Dušan Janković. (Fig. 8, 9, 10)
The Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade keeps quite a number of designs for porcelain and ceramics objects and only two realized works by Janković. The designs are for plates, decorative boxes, vases and tableware. They indicate not only the gift of Janković to observe motifs and their colouration correlation in folk art objects which he transformed into modern Art Deco expression with minimum of intervention but also of his ability to change and open to modernistic trends which were invigorating during the second half of the 1920s in France.
In 1924 and 1925 Dušan Janković exhibited his ceramic and porcelain objects in Paris. At the group exhibition held in Panardie gallery in 1924 he displayed his ceramics together with paintings by four French women artists. In the following year at the Expositions Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes his works were displayed both at the exhibition space of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and that of Manufacture nationale de Sévres. As representative of the Kingdom and due to the reputation he enjoyed in Paris, at this exhibition Janković was elected the vice-president of the international jury for ceramics.
After he moved to Belgrade in 1935 Dušan Janković discontinued working with ceramics and porcelain. Ceramic art was at the beginning in Serbia of the time, there were no porcelain factories and this made products designs superfluous. In 1930s there appeared new trends in experimenting with sculptural and pictorial potentialities of ceramics. Janković had no affinity for such an approach. He used different media to shape and decorate objects in accordance with their function and not to translate characteristics of one medium into another. Dušan Janković was a professional applied artist and designer whose work exceeded by far the habits and needs of the inter-two-World- Wars Serbia. This is particularly true of his work with ceramics, porcelain and fashion.
U konstrukciji novih identiteta, posle Prvog svetskog rata i u Benjaminovoj eri tehničke reprodukcije slika, žena je konsultovala ženske magazine, modne žurnale i film, a ne samo tradiciju, porodično predanje i udžbenike lepog ponašanja. Velike fotografije izuzetnih i značajnih žena na naslovnim stranama časopisa Žena i Svet i Žena danas, kao i heroine sa filmskog platna, nudile su joj gotove, medijski artikulisane, modele koje je ona trebalo što tačnije da imitira. Umesto tradicionalnih stereotipa – majka, domaćica i supruga – masovna kultura je postavila svoje klišee – moderna žena, nova žena, neudata žena, glamur devojka, itd.
fotografija, ženske studije, feminizam, ženski časopis, Srbija
The three magazines published in Belgrade between the two World Wars: Женски покрет, Женски свет and Жена данас, had maintained constant dialogues with all social walks of life simultaneously shaping and offering different models of woman's identity. High circulations of printed media helped establishing rules of consumerism and understanding of visual messages basically linked to the structures of social powers. They also offered basis for imitations as well as for identifications. Belgrade press favoured photographs used as illustrations in a similar attitude existing in other European countries. In modern mass and media culture the press and photography locked in a symbiotic grip gained momentum in the 1920s and 1930s by addressing the numerous and heterogeneous pubic in Serbia as well as in the newly established and much more populous state – Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was later to become the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Front page photographs in the mentioned but also in all other magazines and journals are liable to different interpretations; however, the main issue this analysis raises is: in which way the new image/model of a woman was devised and how this image was conveyed to the public having in mind the effects on and consequences to the privacy and subjectivity domains. To put it more precisely, which were the mechanisms an individual would apply in shaping and consuming one's own visual representations in mass media? Or, which photographs were selected by women editors of women's magazines in order to offer them to other women as visual and construed ideals and models of behaviour?
The analysis focused on three magazines - Женски покрет, Женски свет and Жена данас, proved existence of two basic and stylised models developed in the period between the two World Wars: a modern and a new woman. Naturally, each of the two models had its variants: glamour girl, single woman, luxury fan etc. Visual elaboration of the two leading models revealed certain tactical and different instruments to have been used in the creative process of representation. If front pages of the Женски свет are recognizable for their coherent poster solutions thus providing the largest possible space for a photograph on a printed sheet, then the Жена данас would be remembered for its extraordinary and socially engaged photo mounting which can be compared with the front pages of the German Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung (ABZ) and designs of John Heartfield, at least when the most successful solutions are concerned.
Idealised media images in all the three analysed magazines were equally responsible for the shaping of specific woman's culture. There was no passive standpoint either in production and consuming of mass media images or in the process of building one's own integrity concept. In the process of interpretation of multi-media messages by image/text as offered by woman's magazines both now and then runs a constant inter-subjective communication which implies the process of negotiation between the socially and culturally desirable positions on one side and the private and personal attitudes of the subject on the other.
Defined models of new woman, modern woman, luxury fan, self-confident woman, single woman, glamorous girl, as identified on the basis of the analysis of the front pages, had the function of visual stereotypes which were subject to fast changes in the twenty years of the between the two World Wars period. One should remember that these three magazines including many others not mentioned here, were addressing the public which already had learned about specific woman's culture and feminism. It was only under these conditions that it was possible to accomplish intersubjective communication which used different visual and textual forms along with photographs: drawings, surveys and letters by readers, personal advertisements and interviews.
Marta A. Urbanjska (Marta A. Urbańska, PhD)
The following essay aims at describing the designs of Krzysztof Ingarden, one of the best Polish architects, in the vein of reinterpretation of the tradition of arts and crafts in Cracow (also known as the Cracow school of architecture). However, these designs are neither an imitation, nor an overtly nostalgic return to the past, but rather an attempt at expressing of the much-coveted, elusive identity of rapidly modernising Poland – through both material experiments and concepts that are rooted in the genius loci. The paper discusses the accomplishments of the applied arts movement in Cracow (c. 1900–1925) and the recently completed projects by the office Ingarden & Ewy': Polish Pavilion for the Expo 2005, Japan; Wyspiański 2000 Exhibition Pavilion, and the Garden of Experience (The Garden of Stanisław Lem), both in Cracow.
Krzysztof Ingarden, tradition of the Cracow school of architecture, reinterpretation, material experiments
U eseju su prikazani projekti Kšištofa Ingardena (Krzusztof Ingarden), jednog od najboljih poljskih arhitekata, u skladu sa reintepretacijom tradicije umetnosti i zanata u Krakovu (koja je poznata i kao krakovska škola arhitekture). No, ovi projekti nisu ni imitacija ni povratak na staro, pun nostalgije. To je pre pokušaj da se izrazi neuhvatljiv identitet poljske države koja se sve brže modernizuje. Ovaj arhitekta koji živi i radi u Krakovu praktično realizuje, ali i razvija svoje ideje koje su duhovite, a ipak ukorenjene u lokalni kontekst – u duh samog prostora. On ovako ocenjuje aktuelnu situaciju: «Mnoštvo informacija koje najčešće ne možemo da svarimo [...] ili koje nije moguće jasno definisati – to je elastična, fleksibilna i glatka 'arhitektura bez spojeva'. Međutim, ima arhitekata koje upravo ovakva situacija mobiliše. To može postati polazna tačka za razmišljanje ili traženje ličnog – ili čak generacijskog identiteta. Sukob poljske arhitektonske stvarnosti i multikulturnog otvorenog informacijskog prostora čini da razmišljamo o sopstvenoj situaciji [...] Formalni eksperimenti i 'globalno razmišljanje' moraju da se uklope u sopstveni jezik, prostor i istoriju [...]» („Matrix of Space”, u: Co to ject architektura/Šta je arhitektura? sv. II, urednik Adam Budak sa Martom A. Urbanjskom, Muzeum Manggha, Kraków 2008, 160–180). U tekstu su sažeto prikazani rezultati primenjene umetnosti u Krakovu (oko 1900 – 1925), gde je stvorena poljska secesija(Secesija art nouveau), nacionalni stil (takozvani “stil vlaste-linskih dvoraca”) i raskošni ar deko. Na toj osnovi prikazani su nedavno završeni projekti ateljea Ingarden&Ewy'. Prvi od njih je i visoko ocenjeni poljski paviljon za Expo 2005 u Japanu (Aiči). Obogaćen izuzetno komplikovanim programima koji su objedinjavali nestvarnu muziku Šopena i mnogo praktičnije zahteve (čak i podzemne kakav je bio zadatak da se prikažu rudnici soli u Vjelički), opremljen podacima o Poljskoj i poetičnom fasadom od pletera na izuvijanim čeličnim ramovima, ovaj paviljon se nalazi na vrhu poljske arhitekture. Sledeći projekt je bio paviljon za izložbu Wuspiański 2000 koji se nalazi na Kraljevskom putu u Krakovu i predstavlja prvo moderno zdanje u takvom istorijskom kontektstu (2007). Osmišljen da služi kao izložbeni prostor za nedovršene vitraže Vispjanjskog, genija secesije, ali i da bude gradski informativni centar, paviljon na zadivljujući način reinterpretira upotrebu opeke karakteristične za srednjovekovni Krakov. I na kraju, Vrt iskustva (Vrt Stanislava Lema, 2008) predstavlja izvanredni naučni park sa mnoštvom edukativnih igračaka. I pored skromnog budžeta, arhitektura duhovito ilustruje lepotu logike, zakona koji upravljaju fizičkim svetom i njegov materijalni sadržaj, ali i duh patrona, velikog pisca naučne fantastike, Lema koji je rođen u Lavovu i koji je toliko voleo da razbija igračke… ali koji bi se svakako ponosio – iz više razloga – poštovanjem koje mu je iskazao Ingarden.
Marija Bujić, Mila Gajić, Draginja Maskareli, Jelena Perać, Milica Križanac, Bojana Popović, Biljana Vukotić, Slobodan Jovanović